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Cryptocurrencies - Tax Issues & Other Regulations

In this article, we will cover Cryptocurrencies - Tax Issues & Other Regulations around it in India.


Crypto-currencies have recently been in the spotlight and under the scanner of the tax authorities primarily due to the high prices at which they were seen trading on exchanges in India and around the world. However, the crypto-currency ecosystem is not all only about the various coins, such as bitcoins, but also includes several other actors and participants. Due to the rapidly evolving business models and complexity of the underlying blockchain technology, regulators and tax authorities are yet to come out with clear positions on various issues. This article attempts to raise questions that still remain unresolved, particularly from the perspective of not only the taxation of crypto-currencies themselves but also the manner in which other participants in the crypro-currency ecosystem are regulated and taxed. This article will also differentiate between a crypto-currency and a utility token which are often interchangeably used in common parlance even though they are fundamentally different with their own unique set of tax challenges.



The crypto-currency ecosystem broadly involves the

  • miners
  • nodes
  • traders
  • crypto-currency exchanges
  • hash power rental companies
  • utility companies that issue tokens and
  • the casual consumer/customer who invests into bitcoins.

Briefly each of their roles are described below:

Crypto-currencies - Regulatory and Tax Issues


This is a term used to describe companies or individuals who use computing power to solve cryptographic problems generated by the blockchain When a miner is the first person to solve a particular cryptographic problem, then the miner is credited with a bitcoin by the blockchain software. For the sake of simplicity, the process of mining or solving the cryptographic problem should be understood to contribute toward the verification of a transaction that is conducted over the blockchain network, for instance, the transfer of a bitcoin from one wallet to another.


This is the term used to refer to computing terminals that are part of the system of computing devices that run the blockchain software. Each node has a copy of the blockchain on it. Therefore, the blockchain system is also called a distributed ledger system as the entire record of transactions verified by the blockchain system is available in entirety on every node. The blockchain system is also considered significantly more secure than other softwares primarily because for any transaction to be verified and entered into the distributed ledger or blockchain, more than half the number of nodes connected to the system need to verify the transaction. Therefore, unlike traditional network where with increasing number of participants the network gets increasingly insecure, since each new person could be a source of a hack, the blockchain system gets increasingly secure as controlling more than fifty per cent of the nodes becomes more difficult. Historically, before blockchain became a famous phenomenon, individuals used to use their personal computers or even cell phones for the purpose of mining. However, with the surge in popularity of bitcoin and decreasing supply of mineable bitcoins, miners today use sophisticated hardware that is specially designed for this purpose which provides high end computing power.


Traders are individuals or companies that in the business of buying and selling bitcoins with the intention of making a profit.

Crypto-currency Exchanges

Crypto- currency exchanges act as online platforms that enable the traders and casual customers to buy and sell crypto- Exchanges perform the important function of market making as crypto-currencies tend to be illiquid in nature and if not for the market created or enable by exchanges trades would become significantly difficult for casual customers especially. Exchanges often allow either a crypto to crypto trade or crypto to fiat currency trade and vice versa. Most of the buying and selling happen between third parties, namely traders or consumers and it is only in very rare scenarios do the exchanges themselves own the cryptocurrency. Some exchanges have also accepted payments or service fees in bitcoins for enabling transactions on the exchange and therefore may be in possession of the same. However, as explained later below, due to the apprehension that ownership of bitcoins may lead to complications under the Goods and Services Acts (GST) or under the Income-tax Act, 1961 (ITA), most exchanges had shifted to operating a mere online platform for fees. Exchanges also self-regulated themselves and implemented stringent KYC norms while onboarding a customer. However, recently the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has banned all institutions which fall under its regulatory framework from rendering services for any activity of virtual currencies. (Prohibition on dealing with Virtual Currencies, RBI Notification : RBI/2017-18/154 (6-4-2018))

This has caused severe hardship to exchanges and casual consumers who were conducting genuine trade activities. It is expected therefore that exchanges will shift operations abroad, which will result in a loss of revenue for the tax department.

Hash Power Rental Companies

Since mining operations require tremendous amounts of electricity, they appear to usually be globally located in places where cheap electricity is available. In some instances, tax breaks or incentives could result in mining operations being conducted in certain places. Such companies invest money in buying specialized computer equipment that has been designed and manufactured for the purpose of mining bitcoins and then rent the computing power to other miners or third parties in exchange for fees. Therefore, irrespective of whether the miner is actually rewarded the bitcoin or not, the hash power rental companies receive their service fees. These activities should not be affected by the RBI ban mentioned above as their activities are akin to the provision of a cloud computing service or an online data storage place. The ban should not be applicable to them solely because their client uses their computing power towards the mining of bitcoins. Additionally, the concern for RBI while imposing the ban would have been the inability to possibly track cross-border flow of bitcoins and therefore exchange of money effectively, which should not be a concern in this case as the hash power rental company in India is only being paid service fees.

Utility Companies that issue Utility Tokens

Companies have taken to tokenization to popularize their products or services using terms and jargon similar to that of crypto-currencies. However, there is a significant difference between utility tokens and crypto-currencies. Utility token are issued by a company and therefore there is a counter party involved in the issuance On the other hand, cryptocurrencies are issued or granted to the miners by the blockchain software on the solving of the cryptographic puzzle. For a utility token, mere fiat currency would be sufficient to purchase such tokens without conducting any mining activity in most instances. Secondly, the utility token is usually redeemable or exchangeable for services or products offered by the issuing company in the future. The bitcoin does not have any such utility or inherent value and its value is more often dictated by the vagaries of demand and supply. Therefore a utility token is similar to a top up card that is used in food courts where the money is merely tokenized. The tokens in themselves may have a market as they are usually freely tradeable and therefore their value may go up, which is similar to bitcoins. However, once exchanged for services the tokens are consumed which is unlike bitcoins.

Casual consumer/customer

Initially participants in the early stages of the blockchain network were casual participants who undertook this as a hobby or side Today, there are several individuals who are not traders but occasionally like to transact in bitcoins. The RBI ban has made it difficult for them to now sell the bitcoins they own and the prices have fallen as a result of the ban. Customers could also exchange bitcoins in return for any service or good, which is possible in countries like japan which have accepted bitcoins as a mode of payment. Prior to the ban, there was significant interest to undertake arbitrage trading where an individual would ideally want to purchase bitcoins outside India at a lower price and sell it within India where it was trading at a higher price at that point in time. However, the lack of clarity in the regulations and associated risks deterred many customers.



Based on the above description, several tax and regulatory concerns for these parties are highlighted below based on the activities they undertake:


  1. The RBI has not notified bitcoins or any other virtual currency as officially recognized currency till date and it look like an unlikely Usually fiat currencies are issued by a central bank or governmental authority and is backed by assets such as gold which are in the possession of the issuing entity. Bitcoin being granted by the blockchain software does not meet those qualifications. Had bitcoin been classified as currency, the impact would have  been that it is immediately out of the ambit of GST since ‘goods’ is defined not to include currency.
  2. Under the Sale of Goods Act, 1930, property of any kind that is movable property would qualify as a good provided it is sold for monetary Therefore, arguably bitcoins are goods under this act only in crypto to fiat or fiat to crypto transactions and as such barter transactions are not recognized (which would in theory include crypto to crypto transactions). Extending the same logic if a person were to purchase other goods using crypto, such transactions would also not be covered by the Sale of Goods Act, 1930.
  3. Under the ITA, capital assets are also defined to be property of any kind and is likely to cover bitcoins as The question then arises as to whether bitcoins could also qualify as stock-in-trade. Based on earlier clarifications by the Central Board of Direct taxes (CBDT) with respect to classification of shares as capital assets or stock-in-trade, it may be possible to take a view that a bitcoin sold by a casual consumer is a capital asset while a trader could possibly treat them as stock in trade. If it is treated as stock-in-trade then taxes would be payable on the consideration received under the head of business income.
  4. Further, once a bitcoin is treated as a capital asset, depending on its period of holding, cost of acquisition and the sale consideration, capital gains should be payable at the time of When consideration is received in fiat currency, there is no difficulty, however in barter transactions, valuation of the consideration could lead to issues or disputes. Further, cost of acquisition is may also prove a challenge when the bitcoin is not acquired from another third party. When a bitcoin is mined, there are no specific rules as to how the cost of acquisition should be calculated. In such a situation, it is possible that it may not be calculable and therefore no capital gains tax should be payable. Alternatively, the expenses incurred in setting up the mining equipment and the running expenses could be counted towards the cost of acquisition and improvement.
  5. Even in situations where the bitcoin is acquired in exchange for services through a barter transaction, issues can be raised as to the value of the consideration received. As bitcoins are traded around the world at different rates and even intra-day prices could significantly differ, it is possible that this could also potentially lead to litigation.
  6. With respect to hash power rental companies, their service fees would be the income that would be subject to income tax, but not the bitcoin that their mining operation generates since that would be deemed be the assets of the customer who has hired their Therefore, this situation should be similar to a company that does research and development for a third party under contract.
  7. For individuals, especially those that had bought bitcoins using cash in the early days of bitcoin or non-resident Indians (NRI), the risk of being scrutinized is When an NRI owns bitcoins outside India then there is no obligation to disclose the existence of the same in India. It is only when an NRI derives income from sale of assets in India that there is a requirement to disclose the same and pay taxes. However, if the NRI were to sell the bitcoins outside India and were to attempt to remit the money into India, since they would have made huge gains, chances are that it will be scrutinized closely. It may even be possible for Income Tax authorities to send notices, as they have in the past, asking about the source of income or the money and to show proof that it is not undisclosed income or black money. This could be a significant problem since at times it may be difficult to prove the manner in which bitcoins were acquired in the early days of the ecosystem. It is also tricky to establish that the bitcoin was located outside India since it is a locationless asset and the closest approximation of a location could be the wallet on it was stored at the time of acquisition. However, it is possible that the consumers are not aware as to the location of the server on which the wallet is hosted in which case it could lead to litigation. 
  8. Similarly, for resident Indians who have bought bitcoins outside India, they are under an obligation to disclose foreign assets and money in their foreign bank Here again, the risks highlighted about with respect to source of funds and location of the asset could prove to be thorny issues even for genuine consumers. Should there be any default detected on their part the penalties could potentially be high.
  9. GST should also be applicable to trades of crypto-currencies as the definition of goods is wide enough to cover intangible property including crypto-currencies. In such an event, when the bitcoin is sold for cash, there would be a single supply that should be subject to Should the bitcoin be traded for another good, it should be considered a barter or in fact two simultaneous supplies and therefore GST would be payable twice resulting in a significant GST impact.
  10. If the supply of bitcoin is by a consumer, but not in course of his business, for instance to buy icecream, then it should not a taxable supply under GST.
  11. Being a locationless good, there are difficulties in determining whether it is an inter-State or intra-State supply of This would also impact whether the trades are across borders or not as well. The taxation and registration implications would differ significantly based on that.
  12. Issues may arise in respect of exchanges as to the value on which GST is payable. Ideally it should only be on the service fee component charged by them, however, the tax authorities may take a different view on the matter.
  13. While there is better clarity on hash power rental companies from a tax standpoint as they can be treated similar to any IT support services company, the Registrar of Companies may refuse to incorporate companies which mention crypto-currencies in the AOA or MOA, which could present a significant practical challenge. Additionally, banks may also choose to be conservative in interpreting the RBI ban and refuse to open a bank account for such companies.
  14. Initial coin offerings, depending on the terms and conditions, could also amount to being securities in which case SEBI may scrutinize such transaction closely in the future.
  15. Utility tokens are more akin to actionable claims as they represent a claim in relation to moveable property or services and therefore may not be taxable under GST which exempts actionable claims from GST, except for betting, gambling and lotteries. Such tokens, depending on the terms and conditions could also amount to a voucher under GST and if they do not qualify as an actionable claim, then the point of taxation is shifted to time at which the token is actually exchanged for services or goods.



The potential for blockchain technology is huge. It has the ability to be the backbone of India’s digital infrastructure securing all the transactions made on the digital network. Keeping this is mind, it is clear that the technology is here to stay. Outrightly banning crypto-currencies is shortsighted and despite the complexities involved, there are sufficient benefits to consider regulating it and limiting misuse. Globally most countries have embraced it, while only countries with exchange control restrictions such as China or India have banned it. The ban imposed by RBI would be difficult to enforce in practice and as such, consumers lose value, exchanges lose business, the Government loses taxes, while most likely the trades will move either abroad or underground. This is a situation where all stakeholders lose and only way forward is to recognize the flaws of the current approach and take the steps necessary to regulate crypto- currencies in India.


The contents of this article are for information purposes only and do not constitute an advice or a legal opinion and are personal views of the author. It is based upon relevant law and/or facts available at that point of time and prepared with due accuracy & reliability. Readers are requested to check and refer relevant provisions of statute, latest judicial pronouncements, circulars, clarifications etc before acting on the basis of the above write up.  The possibility of other views on the subject matter cannot be ruled out. By the use of the said information, you agree that we are not responsible or liable in any manner for the authenticity, accuracy, completeness, errors or any kind of omissions in this piece of information for any action taken thereof. CA Mitesh and Associates is Mumbai's leading Cryptocurrency Taxation Firm which is committed to helping people navigate complex tax laws and banking regulations. Our main aim is to assist the individuals with applicable laws & regulations compliance and providing support at each & every level to make sure that they stay compliant and grow continuously. For any query, help or feedback you may get in touch here - Appointment with CA

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CA for Cryptocurrency Taxation

We are CA for Cryptocurrency Taxation located in the heart of Mumbai. We have handled dozen's of client with myriad complexities on Cryptocurrency Taxation. No matter what crypto coin you are trading in - Be it Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Zcash, Dash, Ripple etc, we can help you navigate the regulatory path with it.


Crypto investors and traders have been plagued by regulatory uncertainty in India. As the Indian Government authorities continue to struggle in fundamentally differentiating. Bitcoin from Blockchain, the subcontinent's economy is positioned to lose out on, what is possibly, the century's biggest revolution.

Having added to the fear, uncertainty and doubt, is the ring-fencing notification issued by the RBI, restricting banking access to Indian crypto exchanges. Despite the speed-bump, believers of the Blockchain technology remain undeterred, thanks to which trading volumes have picked up on the Indian exchanges.

Although there isn’t any clarity in tax legislation, the Indian Revenue Authorities are breathing down the necks of crypto traders. It is, therefore, imperative to accurately compute and report any income from cryptocurrencies.

Lets understand some basic fundamentals in this area

1. What is bitcoin?

Bitcoin is one of the earliest forms of cryptocurrency, forming part of the worldwide peer-to-peer payment system.  Cryptocurrency is digital money. It is considered to be more secure that the real money. Cryptocurrency uses something called cryptography to secure its transactions. Cryptography, to put it in simple words is a method of converting comprehensible data into complicated codes which are tough to crack. Cryptocurrencies are classified as a subset of digital currencies, alternative currencies and virtual currencies. Bitcoin was the first ever cryptocurrency created in the year 2009. Subsequently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of cryptocurrencies that have been created some of which are Litecoin, Ethereum, Zcash, Dash, Ripple etc. Bitcoins, in India, have slowly started gaining popularity, given the efforts of the government to move towards a cashless economy. However, one should know that bitcoins, as of today, are not centrally administered or regulated by any specific body like the RBI which administers physical currency in India. In fact, peer-to-peer transactions with bitcoins are managed using something known as the blockchain technology which serves as a public ledger for all transactions.

2. Where does bitcoin come from or how is it generated?

One can obtain bitcoins either by :
  • Mining

Mining is an activity where an individual (called the “miner”) uses his computer prowess to crack computationally difficult puzzles. The process of cracking such puzzles which are integral to the blockchain technology, help in maintaining them. As a reward for this, the miner gets new bitcoins which is nothing but creation of a bitcoin or mining.
  • Purchasing them from a bitcoin exchange against real currency

Everyone cannot be a bitcoin miner. Hence, you can consider buying bitcoins from bitcoin exchanges and store them in an online bitcoin wallet in digital form. Unicorn, Bitxoxo, Zebpay, Coinbase etc., are some of the bitcoin exchanges presently in India. Such bitcoins would be purchased in consideration for real currency. It would be interesting to note that currently, the value of 1 bitcoin is approximately about INR 3,61,610.
  • Receiving bitcoins in consideration of selling goods and services

Though this may not be a common phenomenon in India currently, there are few savvy businessmen who accept bitcoins (instead of real currency) on sale of goods or services, they deal in.

3. Is bitcoin legal in India?

As earlier discussed, bitcoin, as a medium of payment, has neither been authorized nor been regulated by any central authority in India. Further, no set rules, regulations or guidelines have been laid down for resolving disputes that could arise while dealing with bitcoins. Hence, bitcoin transactions come with their own set of risks. However, given this background, one cannot conclude that bitcoins are illegal as, so far, there has been no ban on bitcoins in India. The Supreme Court of India has in its ruling pronounced on 25 February 2019 required the Government to come up with Cryptocurrency regulation policies. The matter had been adjourned in the hearing on 29 March 2019 and has been rescheduled for hearing in the second week of July 2019.

4. How are bitcoins taxed in India?

The concept of bitcoins being quite new to the Indian market, apparently the government has not yet brought taxability of bitcoins into the statute books. At the same time, the levy of tax on bitcoins cannot be ruled out because the Indian income tax laws have always sought to tax income received irrespective of the form in which it is received. Therefore, the possibility of tax on bitcoins can be looked at under the following circumstances:

Scenario A : Bitcoin Mining

Bitcoins created by mining are self-generated capital assets. Subsequent sale of such bitcoins would, in the ordinary course, give rise to capital gains. However, one may note that the cost of acquisition of a bitcoin cannot be determined as it is a self-generated asset. Furthermore, it does not fall under the provisions of Section 55 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 which specifically defines the cost of acquisition of certain self-generated assets. Therefore, the capital gains computation mechanism fails following the Supreme Court decision in the case of B.C.Srinivasa Shetty. Hence, no capital gains tax would arise on the mining of bitcoins. This position would hold till such time the government thinks of coming up with an amendment to Section 55 of the Act. At this juncture, given that the Indian tax laws are silent on the taxability of bitcoins completely, we thought it right to comment on a probable contrary view by the income tax authorities. There is a possibility that the department may not consider bitcoins as capital assets at all. Hence, the provisions of capital gains would not apply at all. Accordingly, the income tax authorities may choose to tax the value of bitcoins received from mining under the head “Income from other sources”  

Scenario B: Bitcoins held as an investment being transferred in exchange for real currency

If bitcoins, which are capital assets, have been held as an investment and are transferred in exchange for real currency, the appreciation in value would give rise to a long term capital gain or a short term capital gain depending on the period of holding of the bitcoin. Further, long term gains would be taxed at a flat rate of 20% while short term gains would be taxed at the individual slab rate. The cost of acquisition for arriving at long term capital gains will be determined after giving the benefit of indexation. A simple example is given below to understand this :
ParticularsValue in INR (Only hypothetical)
No. of bitcoins purchased10
INR equivalent of 1 bitcoin at the time of purchase2.72
Value of bitcoins (A)27.2
INR equivalent of 1 bitcoin on the date of transfer8.72
Value of bitcoins (B)87.2
Capital gains (B - A)60.00
Reiterating the probable contrary view of the income tax authorities discussed under Point 1 above, the IT authorities may not consider Bitcoins as a capital asset and hence the provisions of capital gains would not apply. Accordingly, the income tax authorities may choose to tax the gains from bitcoins under the head “Income from other sources”. Further, if the income gets taxed under “Income from other sources”, the taxpayer would have to pay taxes at a rate as applicable to the tax slab he falls under. For eg, if his taxable income exceeds Rs 10 lakh, he would be liable to a tax @ 30% as against the flat rate of tax of 20% he would be liable to pay if charged to tax under long-term capital gains. The benefit of indexation as would be available if taxed under capital gains, would also not be available if taxed under Income from other sources.

Scenario C: Bitcoins held as stock-in-trade being transferred in exchange for real currency

The income arising out of bitcoins trading activity would give rise to income from business and accordingly, the profits arising out of such business would be subject to tax as per the individual slab rates.

Scenario D: Bitcoins being received as consideration on sale of goods and services

Bitcoins being received so shall be treated on par with receipt of money. It would constitute income in the hands of the recipient. Further, since the recipient received this income out of a business or profession, he would be taxed, normally, under the head profits or gains from business or profession. As regards the disclosure requirement of bitcoins in the income tax return forms, there continues to be a lack of clarity. In the budget 2018, our Finance Minister, Mr Arun Jaitley, has stated in the budget speech, “112. Distributed ledger system or the blockchain technology allows the organisation of any chain of records or transactions without the need for intermediaries. The Government does not consider crypto-currencies legal tender or coin and will take all measures to eliminate use of these crypto assets in financing illegitimate activities or as part of the payment system. The Government will explore use of blockchain technology proactively for ushering in digital economy.”Further, the Central Bank also has chosen to reinforce its earlier message to “users, holders and traders of Virtual Currencies (“VCs”) including bitcoins regarding the potential economic, financial, operational, legal, customer protection and security related risks associated in dealing with such VCs.” Therefore, considering that bitcoin transactions are gradually picking up in India, while, laws regulating them are significantly absent, we are hopeful that the government will come up with a notification soon to dispel the ambiguity around the legality of bitcoins, their taxability and disclosure requirement of bitcoins. While this article aims at discussing the taxability of Bitcoins only, the tax treatment on transacting with other cryptocurrencies would also be similar to that in the case of Bitcoins.  
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